He is persistent rumours, as millions of Chirac in the Japan, the third child hidden of Albert of Monaco or the next appointment of Carlos Ghosn at the head of General Motors. Others have the advantage to be swept by a number. This is the case of the famous death of globalization, mentioned in the media "alter" Honourable journals and sometimes into the market halls. The death In three years, world trade will have made progress... a quarter! This is not a simple magnifying glass effect. Since ten years, global trade of goods and services almost doubled. Same frenzy for capital: last year, a record amount of nearly $ 500 billion dollars has migrated in rich countries to developing countries. In reality, globalization is accelerating. And its the most crazy excesses, that for example carry strawberries on the Christmas markets, were not yet arrested by the recent tripling of the cost of energy.
However, there is a malaise. Its icons are spinning. Coca-Cola does more to advance its sales without sacrificing profits, McDonald's is in the spotlight of trenchant criticism, General Motors is bankrupt. The richest country in the world, the United States, borrows heavily from the rest of the world and its universities have more difficult to attract foreign students. The protectionist temptation monte. Democracy American version is difficult to establish themselves in Iraq. What is going on
In reality, this is not globalization that is weary, but his form which has predominated since the end of the last World War: the Americanization. From 1945, the opening of the frontiers was driven by the Americans and the dollar became the currency of the planet. Diplomats were in operation, the military sometimes, and especially firms which have spread their products, know-how and the american way of life. " After having long resisted, the Communist countries have cracked event logically read as the final American victory. Today, drinking Coca-Cola in Moscow as in Beijing.
As often, the triumph masked started weakening long ago. The first sign was the military vulnerability. The glorious winner of Nazism was defeated in the Viet Nam (it is also on this occasion that a President of the United States has used for the first time the term "americanization-in", to speak in modest terms of the withdrawal of his troops). He suffered the terrible affront to the attacks of September 11, 2001. He has failed to impose a strong democracy in Iraq. Its resources are too limited to open a second front in Iran. On the world diplomatic scene, Washington now met strong opposition, not only the Russian side. And the image of the United States continues to deteriorate, as shown in the survey conducted in 15 countries just publish the Pew Research Center.
On the economic front, the withering of the Americanization is even more evident. The United States represent more than 9 of world exports, against 25 post-war. The decline is exacerbated. The weight of America dropped by 3.5 points in the last decade, more than in the course of the previous three decades, so that the share of America in the production world languished a little over 20 since the mid-1970s.
The same movement is observed on the companies. The steel industry, which made most of us industrial fortunes in the 19th century All jewels resumed by Mittal and Arcelor, as foreign firms now compete on other lands. Automotive, symbol of us power if it was Its leader General Motors yield this year Japanese Toyota its first producer in the world rank he had held for decades and Chrysler was purchase by DaimlerBenz German in 1998. The computer IBM sold its PC business to Chinese Lenovo and Dell has difficulty exporting its model in emerging countries. Coca-Cola Competing brands address successfully at local markets, the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia. And where technology is becoming an industrial and commercial issue, the battle takes place in Asia as for flat panel displays. Of course, there are still trademarks American bearing high and strong the American flag at the four corners of the world such as Exxon, Microsoft, Citigroup or Pfizer. But this is no longer the standard, and these firms promoting diversity. Indeed, in the United States, the gurus of management many more be... Indian.
Ultimate emblem, "American cultural imperialism" moves. Many examples attest. Korea, national films are more than half of the revenues since 2004. Germany, one of the great success of the year is "The Valley of the wolves", Turkish film big budget ($10 million) tells the story of the struggle of Turkish soldiers in Iraq against the Americans. In television, a generation ago, "Dallas" ruthlessly dominated the universe of the series. To the bottom of Côte d'Ivoire, kids baladaient with T-shirts bearing the image of JR and Sue Ellen. Today, Vietnamese spend hours before a Korean series and the argentine telenovela "muñeca Brava" won a great success in Cameroon or Senegal. Last example: unknown American football gaining ground media around the world, as for example in the Japan.
For a time, extension words clearly express the reality: we are not living the "démondialisation", but a "désaméricanisation" key not the world, but globalization itself. The American empire still strong, new national or regional powers emerge at his side. And after was flown by the United States, the growth of trade is now orchestrated by the giant companies from around the world. This major change might threaten globalisation itself. First because the Americans feel that the movement eludes them and react in is crispant hence the irritation of the Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice as soon as it means "multipolar" Word or the rise of the protectionist temptation in Washington. Then, and especially, because there is more than undisputed leadership or organizing cleavage and not, or not yet, opening joint commitment. Hence, for example, the difficulty in the round of trade negotiations in Doha. Without arbitration, the growth of a healthy competition can lead to deleterious commercial rivalries, or even on deadly antagonisms. This is not a rumor, but the history of the world.